"The present only toucheth thee" We look at it later. The other main pages in this series are Hors d'oeuvre here. Gastrotourism 1 here
Cuisine & Culture 2 here Gastrotourism 2 here Ancillary pages UpdatesTo Contents.Aims
Gastrotourism hors d'oeuvre here.
National gastronomy here
Newspaper adverts and articles here
Level 1 pages provide sufficient to cover the topics on the page without exploring sources of information.
Level 2 pages are intended for those who explore the sources irrespective of page level. Updates
This is the only place in the series where they will be found since the launch on 15 Feb.
Look for them in the columns. Cuisine & Culture 1 - C C 1 National gastronomy N G
Gastrotourism 1 - G T 1
Cuisine & Culture 2 - C C 2
Gastrotourism 2 - G T 2
12 Mar Gastrotourism hors d'oeuvre here. Coursework here.
brochures and the planet here
large or small? here
passive or active? here
the growing popularity of gastro-tourism here
the public and pierogi here
sampling local cuisine here
special interest tourism here
your visit to a T A here
my visit to a T A here
wine-bright mouse here
work groups here
This series of pages on gastrotourism is based on the concept of the virtual lecture and its readership includes students with their home lecture/lecturer and others participating in its any-reader in any-circumstance dimensions.
Readers can follow topics of interest on level 1 pages without following up information sources before progressing to level 2 pages only if they want to delve deeper. The emphasis is on topics of student interest raised by use of the Contact page.
The two main aspects of the virtual lecture are:
General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines
This heading arose from a specific request via the Contact page and it set the scene for the series. An alternative approach addresses the way
different cuisines influence gastronomy. That is a vast area to consider so the approach used is to consider national cuisines, how they are
determined and their effect on the specific national gastronomy. The specific request can be used by any group and both aproaches are relevant.
The availability and effects of Gastrotourism
Tourists head for a destination with a variety of aims. If the main aim is to enjoy a specific cuisine and local gastronomy, neither tourists' lapels or
luggage items bear the label "Gastotourist". Their time on arrival is not spent exclusively in restaurants or vineyards etc. They swim, they go to
museums and enjoy the full panoply of the attractions and temptations. Thus, the data is dificult to amass. The effects of gastrotourism are tied up with the interplay between cuisine, culture, gastronomy, economy etc and unfold as the series progresses.
The series pages aim to go beyond what is appropriate to deal with in less than an actual hour in the lecture room arising from specific requests. Level 1 pages aim to stimulate lecture discussion and the reader is not asked to follow up sources.
The pages are à la carte menus and not one-choice, eat-it-all-in-one-bite dishes comprising must-digest ingredients.
One aim is to provide start/inclusion points for projects and other forms of special study.
At present, the series is addressed to students. Other readers, of course, are using it and already it is part of specific user-group activity here in any part of the world. Non-native-English speakers will find that idiom and other potentially difficult use of English have been explained
Readers who use the Contact page are given a guarantee that names and identifying text etc will not be published. The same applies to colleges, universities, interest groups, etc
The Overview Contents here are repeated on the other pages for ease of reference.
Requests and questions
The questionnaire can provide the initial means for students to comment and ask questions. You can complete it on line here.
The Contact page here serves the same purpose. Please be clear as to which page/section etc you are referring to. Don't hesitate to point out errors and links which do not go to where they are intended.
This website is at the initial stage of transition to a new host. (More for the technically-minded here.)
When you use a different computer from the one on which you have saved these pages, remembering the home URL is impossible. You may want to access this page on a different phone or scribble on to a scrap of paper for a friend. cuisinestudy.co.uk is all that needs to be remembered. Try it now cuisinestudy.co.uk If problematic, put www. in front .
Alan F Harrison
UK West Midlands, March 2012 Update Feb 2020 now in Charlbury near Oxford
Aims of the series
To provide a resource bank
for those who participate in the virtual lecture
for those who participate in a specific lecture which has been arrrangemed by their lecturer. It can be virtual or actual.
If you are in the UK you can complete it on line here. If you would like a questionnaire to suit your country, please use the Contact page. National gastro-identifiers
"It’s true that lots of people think that fish and chips is what British people eat all the time." source
You can complete a questionnaire with a list of countries and two columns in which you recorded the main dish or dishes and one or two identifying drinks for a range of countries. See the questionnaire here.
Flags, anthems etc identify countries but how many of us can recognise more than three or so anthems? We might associate specific foods and drinks with specific world-regions or countries. How much agreement is there? Is Italy saddled with spaghetti in the UK public mind or even internationally? In which country/countries is gazpacho served? What about bortsch?
A UK gastro-identifier is presented by an American here. Do UK chefs have copyright and would they agree that the dish represents UK food? For a start, it is an English dish, not UK. Skate up and down the list of countries and comment on your results via the Contact page as within the virtual lecture.
What are these and which countries do they represent?
National dish A
National dish B
In this series, we look at the problem of distinguishing between national gastro-identifiers. If you were promoting B, would you be tempted to depict with the A picture?
Much later in the series, we also look at the concept of cuisine in relation to its vagueness. Already, it shows. If you haven't digested these offerings, click here. With so many hospitality and tourism students going into hospitality, the more who are conversant with the concepts of gastronomy and cuisine the better. Beyond dealing with staff, marketing etc, conversant is the right word at the table with important, even unimportant, guests. Both topics are endless in scope and interpretation.
And if some readers are to enter hospitality and tourism with management roles in mind, they need to consider how gastrotourism and cuisine are to be sold and made profitable. That includes widening public awareness and interest in the product. The same applies to the staff involved, particularly those involved in production and at the point of sale. Consider just how many are involved and the impact they can have on success.
General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines
" ... the kitchen of any society ... serves as an important source for cultural information." source
"The gastronomy of a nation is what it eats and how it eats it." later
"We are born into a family, and so we acquire tastes and preferences related to the family institution in which we were brought up." later Gastronomy or cuisine?
Cuisine is part of gastronomy and not vice versa. Gastronomy considers, among other things, the social and cultural aspects of eating. Cuisine is more to do with using ingredients from the locality [and obtained from elsewhere] to reflect either the gastronomic flavour of the locality or a theme within cookery such as nouvelle cuisine.
The source isHere if you want to look deeper into the question.
In the present context, gastronomy is more than the social aspects of eating. It explores the geographical, political and economic situation of those producing, selling and consuming.
In addressing the main heading, we need to start by looking at an example of gastronomy in a specific cuisine. The questionnaire results will determine the one we look at.
In List B, the emphasis is on geography. There are several which defy logic if their names are meant to signify anything. . The items in the lists; as with any declaration that X cuisine has been created, should be tried or studied; reflect a combination of chef etc ingenuity and the demand for new styles of eating. Once again, the matter of logic applies. Consider other differences between the lists.
aux mille senteurs bourgeoise
minceur moleculaire paysanne
parfumée réussie sans frontierès
When you start looking into specific cuisines, your results vary. Take cuisine réussie for example. You might find this ... or even this !
Click Tex-Mex above. You also see French cuisine. Our friend the snail doesn't know where he is destined.
Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture, which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy*. Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption. Some popular types of ethnic foods include Italian, French, Japanese, Chinese, American, Cajun, Thai, and Indian cuisine.
Various cultures throughout the world study the dietary analysis of food habits. While evolutionarily speaking, as opposed to culturally, humans are omnivores. Religion ... will often affect which foods they will consume. Food is eaten and typically enjoyed through the sense of taste, [and] the perception of flavor from eating and drinking. Certain tastes are more enjoyable than others, for evolutionary purposes.
To explore the list of cuisines go to the source. * Gastronomy here
Source of text and both listshere List A - most items are explained there.
Indigenous cuisines are likely to be located near those with similarities. Consider gastro-geographical belts:
Basic gastro-geographical belts
This gives us the grain, root, fish, game, pig and cattle belt and its subsequent bread, vegetable, fish, meat diet. The original beverages of this belt were all grain based, such as the whisky of Scotland and ales of England, the beers and Schnapps of Scandinavia and Germany, as well as the vodkas of the Russo-Polish regions.
This is the rice, fruit wine and cheese belt. Again, climate, season and soil are the basic relevant factors. Its many pastoral and mountain regions with goats, sheep and, later, cattle, make it the natural birthplace of one of the oldest of man-made foods - cheese.
The rice-based diet of this belt almost circles the world and is represented in basic dishes such as the paellas of Spain, the risottos of Italy and the pilaffs of the Balkan and the Middle East countries. A basic rice diet can be seen in some form or other in India, China, Indonesia and Japan.
Represented by parts of Africa, South America and other Southern regions, this belt is less clearly defined in its basic diets because of the dietary influence and customs of early European immigrants. But it is true to say that we could call it the herb and spice belt, with a vegetable-based, almost vegetarian-based, diet. Only in parts was its diet influenced by the fish and meat, and milk and cheese dishes, of Europeans. The diet has made a considerable contribution to the world's gastronomy in the form of such products as peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, cocoa, tea and coffee.
Bode, W K 13- European Gastronomy ... - Grub Street [Press] - London - 2000 pp 43, 45
"A basic rice diet can be seen in some form or other in India, China, Indonesia and Japan." W K Bode, above. "England and America are two countries separated by the same language." Bernard Shaw here.
"India, China, Indonesia and Japan are four countries separated by their versions of the same fried rice." Aunt Sally
Readers with deeper interest, time and energetic mice could explore this link:
Considering that the entity known as the British Isles is within two belts, what differences between English and Scottish cuisines would you expect? Considering that Wales and much of England are within the same belt, why are their cuisines different? In-depth readers might like to look at Wales, click here. Scotland is here. You can send comment and questions on any topic seen in the series of pages via the Contact page.
Alan Davidson's maps
Find Alan Davidson's "Oxford Companion to Food" on your shelf (a beautiful and essential resource for food-devotees and food-professionals) or in a local library. I refer to the Tom Jaine edition, page 869.
Personal gastronomy and family cuisine
"We are born into a family, and so we acquire tastes and preferences related to the family institution in which we were brought up. We love our relatives and dislike them as well, but we can never avoid them completely. We may skip past certain dishes at the family buffet but regardless of the occasion, they have a way of making their presence known – their smell permeating occasions. They inherently become part of our genealogical recipe, incorporating their influence, direct or indirect, into our everyday choices and decisions. As a result of their existence and our inability to evade them, we opt to understand them, to breakdown their qualities and characteristics and identify the aspects of them that we enjoy and those we loath. We learn to work with them, to endure them, to tolerate them." source
The leap from family to national cuisine is a mighty one. It encompasses locality vis a vis infrastructure etc, the local and wider community, areas, regions, counties or other ways of describing organisation, until the national considerations are reached. Deciding what you consider to be your national dish or drink is easier than explaining your choice.
Perhaps it is appropriate to look at the heading "General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines" again. In considering "General cultural influences on gastronomy of different cuisines", we can see that they are interwoven.
Looking at the second title means a major diversion. The gastronomy of a nation is what it eats and how it eats it. That statement is the logical outcome of removing "family" and replacing it with "national" vis a vis the sub-heading "Personal gastronomy and family cuisine".
Millions of people the world over place their order with more than a notion of the McDonalds style. The assistant rests the tray on the counter. I rest my case.
Fried rice has been talked about and it is only a symbol to represent a syndrome. It could be buttered snails with garlic, gazpacho or gruel. The border regulations of today mean more residential movement than only a decade ago. How will the gastrotourism market change?
The fried-rice situation of a UK version of the product being accepted by an undiscerning public is only part of the effect mainly observable in a non-tourism situation. Street-corner gastronomy reduces to popping out for a burger and coming back with beer. The provenance of fried rice is as much to do with the numbers of immigrants coming to the UK decades ago as it is to do with Brits going abroad and acquiring new tastes. Without embarking on a fried rice dissertation, some who provide it meet the lowest common denominator of demand. The devotee gastro-tourists who do do their homework are looking for new horizons of gastronomy. Those embarking on a career in hospitality and tourism management are faced with a challenge.
Readers might one day find themselves involved with tourism development and the promotion of gastrotourism could benefit from the gastromap approach we saw here. Does gastrotourism concern itself only with the large company or can a chef-proprieor use its techniques?
The second part of the question is easier to answer than proving the assertion in the first statement.
Smart cuisine is a style of cooking that focuses on using high quality ingredients, that deliver a high level of nourishment. These ingredients, which we call “power ingredients”, are combined to provide a variety of health benefits with each meal. Some of these benefits include, heart health, prevention of various types of cancers, prevention of stroke, reduction of stress, increased metabolism, bone strength and prevention of osteoporosis, improved vision, improved digestion and skin health.
Smart cuisine also focuses on using short cooking techniques which bring out the foods’ natural flavors and prevent their nutrients from being “cooked” away. And what about the taste?, you might ask. It’s very easy to make food taste great when you use the very best. source
Sounds good! Is it an example of exploitation of a vogue or vague word? Everything needs to be smart these days. Only in-depth readers will explore the vagueness of the word cuisine on the Gastrotourism 2 page here after reading both level 1 pages.
Here is a (mis)represenatation note of the questionnaire.
Update 16 Feb 2012
If you missed the questionnaire completion, you can complete it on line here. Look through it below to see the advice other students were given.
Lecture on Gastrotourism - Alan F Harrison
General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines
The availability and effects of Gastro-Tourism
We will consider dishes and drinks which identify nations and your perception of a range of nations is requested. Address your country and include others which you have visited. Please add your country if not listed and add others which you have visited if not listed.
Robert Burns poem on the plight of a mouse ends with this ponderance:
"Still thou art blest, compar'd wi' me!
The present only toucheth thee:
But, och! I backward cast my e'e (eye)
On prospects drear!
An' forward, tho' I canna see,
I guess an' fear! "
For the source, take your pickhere.
If you are an in-depth reader, find out about the snail's (obvious) destiny via Cuisine & Culture 2 here much later on in your time on these pages. If you just want to find out without all that, you can still click the link. It might result in an amuse bouche.
Welsh rarebit (called Welsh rabbit in some versions) used to be served
by the Edwardians as a savoury – a course to be tucked under the
straining waistband just after pudding. If you cool this rarebit on a
cake rack (to keep the toast crisp), remove the crusts and slice the
rarebit into little squares, it also makes a great canapé when speared
on a toothpick with a cherry tomato. source
Limited contact with Welsh people indicates their preference for "rabbit".
This is my version of the toasted cheese and ham sandwich of café society fame, and just thinking about it and imagining atmospheric, crowded pavement cafés makes me long to be in Paris and eat it there. But, that not being possible, it's one of the nicest snack meals for one that I know.
Would you undertake a gastro-tour to Vietnam for Croque Monsieur?
Not-so-Welsh Rarebit/Rabbit - in-depth readers only
Find Alan Davidson's "Oxford Companion to Food" on your shelf (an essential resource for food-devotees and food-professionals) or in the library. I refer to the Tom Jaine edition here, page 844. If access is not possible, here is the gist:
"According to Alan Davidson author of “The Oxford Companion to Food,” the earliest recipe for Welsh Rabbit appeared in 1725.
Ironically, the dish doesn’t use any rabbit meat in it. It’s a cheese-based recipe; and it’s been suggested the name comes from the ages-old saying that rabbit was the “poor man’s meat,” but in Wales cheese was the “poor man’s meat.”
The recipe appeared in a French cookbook in 1814 and became popular there at the end of the 1800s and early 1900s. Early recipes used white or red wine as an ingredient that makes the mixture more like a fondue." more
Here we see cuisine and culture in bed together. It's a living, loving relationship within a huge family.
An earlier book in the same family as the one quoted above is Larousse Gastronomique here. Although level 1 readers probably will not explore either book, they must be aware that they exist.