Cuisine Home page
The Food World
Food time-line + links
Food time-line- as was
World cuisine 1
World Cuisine 2
Cuisine atlas alone
Cuisine atlas explored
Another cuisine atlas
Gastrotourism 1
. . .Newspaper adverts/ articles
. .. Brochures
. . Questionnaire results
Cuisine & Culture 2
Gastrotourism 2
. . .National Gastronomy
Gastrotourism coursework
Chefs in 1967
Chefs in 1984
Chef tree
Humpty Dumpty cuisine
Types of cuisine 1
Haute cuisine
Welsh cuisine
Welsh gastronomy
Types of cuisine 2
Types of cuisine 3
Types of cuisine 5ex
Cookery analysed
The process approach
On triangles etc
The triangle figures
The visual pyramid
Cookery & Food Assoc
Cuisine - published
Cuisine - whole article
Fig 2 .Haute Cuisine
Fig 6. Framework
Fig 7. Using the Framework
Fig 8 .Cold Process
Fig 9 .Sauce Process
Fig 10 Sauce Example
Fig 11 Process Triangle
Oriiginal explained
Original + extras
Original paper + text
Published original in Anthro Lings
Lehrer + Levi-Strauss
Lehrer - Cuisine
Semantic Cuisine
Works consulted

Cuisine and culture 1                                                

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "The present only toucheth thee" We look at it later. 

The other main pages in this series are Hors d'oeuvre here
Gastrotourism 1  here
                                                                       Cuisine & Culture 2   here
                                                                       Gastrotourism 2       

Ancillary pages                        Updates    To Contents.     Aims                                                      

     Gastrotourism hors d'oeuvre
     National gastronomy  
     Newspaper adverts and articles


Level 1 pages provide sufficient to cover the topics on the page without exploring sources of information.

Level 2 pages are intended for those who explore the sources irrespective of page level. 


This is the only place in the series where they will be found since the launch on 15 Feb. 

Look for them in the columns.  Cuisine & Culture 1 -   C C 1   National gastronomy N G
                                                  Gastrotourism 1 -       G T 1
                                                  Cuisine & Culture 2  - C C 2
                                                  Gastrotourism 2 -       G T 2

12 Mar   Gastrotourism hors d'oeuvre
here.  Coursework here.

6 Mar    Vicarious gastrotourism

5 Mar     Resources page
here    Keeping up with the general news

1 Mar     Update 1 March 2012
here  C C 1 

28 Feb    Question lists at G T 1, C C 2, and G T 2 - all in the Overview Contents

27 Feb    Mini-index
here   wine-bright mouse here  G T 1

              The virtual lecture
here under Conclusion - GT1

              Malaysia on a plate here and here


              World-beating tapas bars




              Snake-heart cocktail here

              aide memoire here

              Resources page
here  It is part of a suite on cuisine and includes "Current concerns" which come within our gastro-cartography aspects

23 Feb      Health education and food
here N G

                More on cuisines - breadcrumbs
here  C C 2 

here   C C 2

22 Feb      More on cuisines
here  C C 2

                More on gastro-geographical belts
here  C C 2

20 Feb     Aims
here  Questionnaires here

19 Feb     Three new newspaper items starting from

18 Feb     Brochures page
here  G T 1 

               In-depth readers could read books such as

17 Feb -  Questionnaires have been posted to a new page.  

                 You can complete it on line 

               The more the merrier.  Look
 for results - 2012.

              G T 1  
Travel agent response 16 Feb

                        Newspaper articles 17 Feb

main page links here   
Cuisine & Culture 1 

Gastrotourism 1       
Cuisine & Culture 2  
Gastrotourism 2     
Updates here



The questionnaire

Gastronomy or cuisine?


Different cuisines

Cuisines Lists A and B

Gastrogeographical belts

Alan Davidson's maps

Personal gastronomy and family cuisine



Get smart

Requests and questions


Aims -
Aims- this
a la carte menus/pages
Ancillary pages

dishes, copyright of
Flags and anthems
Food habits
countries separated by

Gastronomy is more than social aspects of eating
Being conversant with gastronomy
G T market change
G T market

Street-corner gastronomy
humans are omnivores

National identifiers

Robert Burns
Spotted Dick
Scots and Welsh cuisines
Smart cuisine
Snail destiny
Website characteristics


bortsh served

agreement - national cuisines

dish copyright

English/Scottish cuisines

gastrotourism market change

gazpacho served

spaghetti and Italy

UK gastro-geographical belt

what are these?

  Flavour of the month here

Niche market? 


Availability here

Brochures page here  18 Feb

Travel agent response 16 Feb

Newspaper articles 17 Feb

Finding out

Food tourism is as old as the hills

Public awareness


The lecture


Fried rice syndrome



brochures and the planet
large or small?
passive or active?
the growing popularity of gastro-tourism
the public and pierogi

sampling local cuisine
special interest tourism
your visit to a T A
my visit to a T A
wine-bright mouse
work groups


chicken & egg

England's gastro-identifier

What does etc mean?

fish & chips in Spain

% of holidays

the man in the street

odd-man out

What UK recession?

T A resources

More on gastronomy here

More on cuisines here

     breadcrumbs here  batter here

National gastronomy

Gastro-identifers here

Consumers and providers here


When did you last enjoy bourbon ravioli?

breadcrumbs as lietmotif

and batter questions

G = (A + B)

gastronomic beastie

what are your conclusions?

Discussion topics here

Gastronomy, dishes and cuisines here


More impala, sir?  here 

Sustainability here

Promoting gastrotourism here

Gastro-cartography here

Gastronomy as a tourism product here

Conclusion here


    Angular cuisine here

    Community here  here

    It's Tuesday here
    make-or-buy decisions here

    migration factor here


reading journals

vertical & horizontal

Why does this situation occur?

influences of gastrotourism

opportunities in your country

The French wonder what the fuss is about

promo questions

another here


To Contents. 


This series of pages on gastrotourism is based on the concept of the virtual lecture and its readership includes students with their home lecture/lecturer and others participating in its any-reader in any-circumstance dimensions.   

Readers can follow topics of interest on level 1 pages without following up information sources before progressing to level 2 pages only if they want to delve deeper.  The emphasis is on topics of student interest raised by use of the Contact page.  
The two main aspects of the virtual lecture are:

      General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines

             This heading arose from a specific request via the Contact page and it set the scene for the series. An alternative approach addresses the way 
             different cuisines influence gastronomy.  That is a vast area to consider so the approach used is to consider national cuisines, how they are
 and their effect on the specific national gastronomy.  The specific request can be used by any  group and both aproaches are relevant. 
      The availability and effects of Gastrotourism

              Tourists head for a destination with a variety of aims.  If the main aim is to enjoy a specific cuisine and local gastronomy, neither tourists'  lapels or
              luggage items bear the label "Gastotourist".  Their time on arrival is not spent exclusively in restaurants or vineyards etc.  They swim, they go to 
              museums and enjoy the full panoply of the attractions and temptations.  Thus, the data is dificult to amass.  The effects of gastrotourism are tied                  up with the interplay between cuisine, culture, gastronomy, economy etc and unfold as the series progresses. 

The series pages aim to go beyond what is appropriate to deal with in less than an actual  hour in the lecture room arising from specific requests.    Level 1 pages aim to stimulate lecture discussion and the reader is not asked to follow up sources.   

The pages are à la carte menus and not one-choice, eat-it-all-in-one-bite dishes comprising must-digest ingredients.

One aim is to provide start/inclusion points for projects and other forms of special study.

At present, the series is addressed to students.  Other readers, of course, are using it and already it is part of specific user-group activity  
here in any part of the world.  Non-native-English speakers will find that idiom and other potentially difficult use of English have been explained 

Readers who use the Contact page are given a guarantee that names and identifying text etc will not be published.  The same applies to colleges, universities, interest groups, etc

The Overview Contents
here are repeated on the other pages for ease of reference.

Requests and questions

The questionnaire can provide the initial means for students to comment and  ask questions. You can complete it on line 

The Contact page
here serves the same purpose.  Please be clear as to which page/section etc you are referring to.  Don't hesitate to point out errors and links which do not go to where they are intended.

This website is at the initial stage of transition to a new host.  (More for the technically-minded

When you use a different computer from the one on which you have saved these pages, remembering the home
URL is impossible.  You may want to access this page on a different phone or scribble on to a scrap of paper for a friend.  cuisinestudy.co.uk  is all that needs to be remembered.  Try it now  cuisinestudy.co.uk
  If problematic, put  www. in front .   

Alan F Harrison   

UK West Midlands, March 2012  Update Feb 2020 now in Charlbury near Oxford


Aims of the series

To provide a resource bank

  1.  for those who participate in the virtual lecture
  2.  for those who participate in a specific lecture which has been arrrangemed by their lecturer.  It can be virtual or actual. 
  3.  for lecturers and researchers here 
  4.  for student essays, projects, assignments, dissertations, theses and other titles for work to be submitted
  5.  which provides samples of the availability of gastrotourism for those undergoing marketing and other training in industry
  6.  which provides samples of the availability of gastrotourism for general readers including those who have been directed to a specific topic

Aims of this page

  1. To provide a broad introduction to the series
  2. To emphasise that specific students are not required to read everything in the series. 
  3.                                level 1 pages are more important than level 2 for the time-challenged reader 
  4.                                any actual lecture which arises centres on student interest and not new information
  5.                                such lecture will accommodate specific local needs and topics as negotiated with the local lecturer 
  6.                                any reader only needs to use the Contact page for help.



To Contents.

The questionnaire

If you are in the UK you can complete it on line 
here.  If you would like a questionnaire to suit your country, please use the Contact page.

National gastro-identifiers

"It’s true that lots of people think that fish and chips is what British people eat all the time." 

You can complete a questionnaire with a list of countries and two columns in which you recorded the main dish or dishes and one or two identifying drinks for a range of countries. See the questionnaire here.   

Flags, anthems etc identify countries but how many of us can recognise more than three or so anthems? We might associate specific foods and drinks with specific world-regions or countries.  How much agreement is there?  Is Italy saddled with spaghetti in the UK public mind or even internationally?  In which country/countries is gazpacho served?  What about bortsch?   

A UK gastro-identifier is presented by an American
here. Do UK chefs have copyright and would they agree that the dish represents UK food? For a start, it is an English dish, not UK.   Skate up and down the list of countries and comment on your results via the Contact page as within the virtual lecture.

What are these and which countries do they represent?

National dish A


National dish B

In this series, we look at the problem of distinguishing between national gastro-identifiers. If you were promoting B, would you be tempted to depict with the A picture? 

Much later in the series, we also look at the concept of cuisine in relation to its vagueness. Already, it shows. If you haven't digested these offerings, click

With so many hospitality and tourism students going into hospitality, the more who are conversant with the concepts of gastronomy and cuisine the better. Beyond dealing with staff, marketing etc, conversant is the right word at the table with important, even unimportant, guests.  Both topics are endless in scope and interpretation.

And if some readers are to enter hospitality and tourism with management roles in mind, they need to consider how gastrotourism and cuisine are to be sold and made profitable.  That includes widening public awareness and interest in the product.  The same applies to the staff involved, particularly those involved in production and at the point of sale.  Consider just how many are involved and the impact they can have on success. 

To Contents.

General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines

" ... the kitchen of any society ... serves as an important source for cultural information."

"The gastronomy of a nation is what it eats and how it eats it."  later

"We are born into a family, and so we acquire tastes and preferences related to the family institution in which we were brought up."  later

Gastronomy or cuisine?

Cuisine is part of gastronomy and not vice versa.  Gastronomy considers, among other things, the social and cultural aspects of eating.  Cuisine is more to do with using ingredients from the locality [and obtained from elsewhere] to reflect either the gastronomic flavour of the locality or a theme within cookery such as nouvelle cuisine.

The source is Here if you want to look deeper into the question.

In the present context, gastronomy is more than the social aspects of eating. It explores the geographical, political and economic situation of those producing, selling and consuming.   

In addressing the main heading, we need to start by looking at an example of gastronomy in a specific cuisine.  The questionnaire results will determine the one we look at. 

Different cuisines

In List B, the emphasis is on geography. There are several which defy logic if their names are meant to signify anything. .   The items in the lists; as with any declaration that X cuisine has been created, should be tried or studied; reflect a combination of chef etc ingenuity and the demand for new styles of eating.  Once again, the matter of logic applies.  Consider other differences between the lists.

  List A

aux mille senteurs
de civilité
de sensibilitié
de femme
de jus
du marché 
du soleil
du terroir  


sans frontierès

Source of both lists

List B

Central American
Homestyle Cooking
Middle Eastern
Pancakes/Waffles Pizza
Soul Food
South American
Wild Game
original source It is unclear why this page exists.
Sandwiches cuisine? Read about it and other considerations here



To Contents.

When you start looking into specific cuisines, your results vary.  Take cuisine réussie  for example.  You might find
this  ... or even this  !

Click Tex-Mex above.  You also see French cuisine.  Our friend the snail doesn't know where he is

Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture, which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy*. Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption. Some popular types of ethnic foods include Italian, French, Japanese, Chinese, American, Cajun, Thai, and Indian cuisine.

Various cultures throughout the world study the dietary analysis of food habits. While evolutionarily speaking, as opposed to culturally, humans are omnivores.  Religion ... will often affect which foods they will consume. Food is eaten and typically enjoyed through the sense of taste, [and] the perception of flavor from eating and drinking. Certain tastes are more enjoyable than others, for evolutionary purposes.

To explore the list of cuisines go to the
source.  * Gastronomy here


Source of text and both lists
List A - most items are explained there.
Indigenous cuisines are likely to be located near those with similarities.  Consider gastro-geographical belts:

Basic gastro-geographical belts
Northern Belt
This gives us the grain, root, fish, game, pig and cattle belt and its subsequent bread, vegetable, fish, meat diet. The original beverages of this belt were all grain based, such as the whisky of Scotland and ales of England, the beers and Schnapps of Scandinavia and Germany, as well as the vodkas of the Russo-Polish regions.
Middle Belt
This is the rice, fruit wine and cheese belt. Again, climate, season and soil are the basic relevant factors. Its many pastoral and mountain regions with goats, sheep and, later, cattle, make it the natural birthplace of one of the oldest of man-made foods - cheese.
The rice-based diet of this belt almost circles the world and is represented in basic dishes such as the paellas of Spain, the risottos of Italy and the pilaffs of the Balkan and the Middle East countries. A basic rice diet can be seen in some form or other in India, China, Indonesia and Japan.
Southern Belt
Represented by parts of Africa, South America and other Southern regions, this belt is less clearly defined in its basic diets because of the dietary influence and customs of early European immigrants. But it is true to say that we could call it the herb and spice belt, with a vegetable-based, almost vegetarian-based, diet. Only in parts was its diet influenced by the fish and meat, and milk and cheese dishes, of Europeans. The diet has made a considerable contribution to the world's gastronomy in the form of such products as peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, cocoa, tea and coffee.
Bode, W K 13- European Gastronomy ... - Grub Street [Press] - London - 2000 pp 43, 45

"A basic rice diet can be seen in some form or other in India, China, Indonesia and Japan." W K Bode, above.  

"England and America are two countries separated by the same language."  Bernard Shaw

"India, China, Indonesia and Japan are four countries separated by their versions of the same fried rice."
Aunt Sally

Readers with deeper interest, time and energetic mice could explore this link:       
         The British Isles  here
 Where is a belt drawn?

Considering that the entity known as the British Isles is within two belts, what differences between English and Scottish cuisines would you expect?  Considering that Wales and much of England are within the same belt, why are their cuisines different?  In-depth readers might like to look at Wales, click
here.  Scotland is here.     You can send comment and questions on any topic seen in the series of pages via the Contact page.

 Alan Davidson's maps

Find Alan Davidson's "Oxford Companion to Food" on your shelf (a beautiful and essential resource for food-devotees and food-professionals) or in a local library. I refer to the Tom Jaine edition, page 869.

To Contents.



Personal gastronomy and family cuisine

"We are born into a family, and so we acquire tastes and preferences related to the family institution in which we were brought up. We love our relatives and dislike them as well, but we can never avoid them completely. We may skip past certain dishes at the family buffet but regardless of the occasion, they have a way of making their presence known – their smell permeating occasions. They inherently become part of our genealogical recipe, incorporating their influence, direct or indirect, into our everyday choices and decisions. As a result of their existence and our inability to evade them, we opt to understand them, to breakdown their qualities and characteristics and identify the aspects of them that we enjoy and those we loath. We learn to work with them, to endure them, to tolerate them." 

The leap from family to national cuisine is a mighty one.  It encompasses locality vis a vis infrastructure etc, the local and wider community, areas, regions, counties or other ways of describing organisation, until the national considerations are reached.  Deciding what you consider to be your national dish or drink is easier than explaining your choice.

Perhaps it is appropriate to look at the heading  "General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines" again.   In considering  "General cultural influences on gastronomy of different cuisines", we can see that they are interwoven.   

Looking at the second title means a major diversion.  The gastronomy of a nation is what it eats and how it eats it. That statement is the logical outcome of removing "family" and replacing it with "national" vis a vis the sub-heading "Personal gastronomy and family cuisine".

Millions of people the world over place their order with more than a notion of the McDonalds style.  The assistant rests the tray on the counter.  I rest my case.




To Contents.


Fried rice has been talked about and it is only a symbol to represent a syndrome.  It could be buttered snails with garlic, gazpacho or gruel. The border regulations of today mean more residential movement than only a decade ago.  How will the gastrotourism market change?  

The fried-rice situation of a UK version of the product being accepted by an undiscerning public is only part of the effect mainly observable in a non-tourism situation.  Street-corner gastronomy reduces to popping out for a burger and coming back with beer. The provenance of fried rice is as much to do with the numbers of immigrants coming to the UK decades ago as it is to do with Brits going abroad and acquiring new tastes.  Without embarking on a fried rice dissertation, some who provide it meet the  lowest common denominator of demand.   The devotee gastro-tourists who do do their homework are looking for new horizons of gastronomy.  Those embarking on a career in hospitality and tourism management are faced with a challenge.

Readers might one day find themselves involved with tourism development and the promotion of gastrotourism could benefit from the gastromap approach we saw
here. Does gastrotourism concern itself only with the large company or can a chef-proprieor use its techniques? 

The second part of the question is easier to answer than proving the assertion in the first statement.   
Revisit some topics discussed 
Gastrotourism 1 is here once material of interest on this page has been digested.

To Contents.
 Get smart


Smart cuisine is a style of cooking that focuses on using high quality ingredients, that deliver a high level of nourishment. These ingredients, which we call “power ingredients”, are combined to provide a variety of health benefits with each meal. Some of these benefits include, heart health, prevention of various types of cancers, prevention of stroke, reduction of stress, increased metabolism, bone strength and prevention of osteoporosis, improved vision, improved digestion and skin health.


Smart cuisine also focuses on using short cooking techniques which bring out the foods’ natural flavors and prevent their nutrients from being “cooked” away. And what about the taste?, you might ask. It’s very easy to make food taste great when you use the very best.   source

Sounds good!  Is it an example of exploitation of a vogue or vague word?  Everything needs to be smart these days. Only in-depth readers will explore the vagueness of the word cuisine on the Gastrotourism 2  page here after reading both level 1 pages.


To Contents.

 Here is a (mis)represenatation note of the questionnaire.

Update 16 Feb 2012

If you missed the questionnaire completion, you can complete it on line 
here.   Look through it below to see the advice other students were given. 



Lecture on Gastrotourism - Alan F Harrison

General cultural influences on gastronomy in different cuisines


The availability and effects of Gastro-Tourism                                      
We will consider dishes and drinks which identify nations and your perception of a range of nations is requested. Address your country and include others which you have visited.   Please add your country if not listed and add others which you have visited if not listed.
Read about aspects of the lecture at
                                                     Dish or dishes                                                           Drink or drinks
N Ireland

 Your additional comments, questions etc can be written here or via Prof.AFHarrison@dsl.pipex.com

To Contents.

Robert Burns poem on the plight of a mouse ends with this ponderance:

Still thou art blest, compar'd wi' me!
The present only toucheth thee:
But, och! I backward cast my e'e (eye)
On prospects drear!
An' forward, tho' I canna see,
I guess an' fear! "                           

For the source, take your pick 

If you are an in-depth reader, find out about the snail's (obvious) destiny via  Cuisine & Culture 2  
here much later on in your time on these pages.  If you just want to find out without all that, you can still click the link.  It might result in an amuse bouche.

To Contents.



Welsh rarebit (called Welsh rabbit in some versions) used to be served
by the Edwardians as a savoury – a course to be tucked under the
straining waistband just after pudding. If you cool this rarebit on a
cake rack (to keep the toast crisp), remove the crusts and slice the
rarebit into little squares, it also makes a great canapé when speared
on a toothpick with a cherry tomato.

Limited contact with Welsh people indicates their preference for "rabbit".


Vive la difference à la Delia ici

On the left - Croque Monsieur

This is my version of the toasted cheese and ham sandwich of café society fame, and just thinking about it and imagining atmospheric, crowded pavement cafés makes me long to be in Paris and eat it there. But, that not being possible, it's one of the nicest snack meals for one that I know.

Delia Smith

Would you undertake a gastro-tour to Vietnam for Croque Monsieur?

Which picture now if promoting dish B?

picture source


Not-so-Welsh Rarebit/Rabbit - in-depth readers only

Find Alan Davidson's "Oxford Companion to Food" on your shelf (an essential resource for food-devotees and food-professionals) or in the library. I refer to the Tom Jaine edition here, page 844.  If access is not possible, here is the gist:

"According to Alan Davidson author of “The Oxford Companion to Food,” the earliest recipe for Welsh Rabbit appeared in 1725.

Ironically, the dish doesn’t use any rabbit meat in it. It’s a cheese-based recipe; and it’s been suggested the name comes from the ages-old saying that rabbit was the “poor man’s meat,” but in Wales cheese was the “poor man’s meat.”

The recipe appeared in a French cookbook in 1814 and became popular there at the end of the 1800s and early 1900s. Early recipes used white or red wine as an ingredient that makes the mixture more like a fondue."  more

Here we see cuisine and culture in bed together. It's a living, loving relationship within a huge family. 

An earlier book in the same family as the one quoted above is Larousse Gastronomique here.  Although level 1 readers probably will not explore either book, they must be aware that they exist.

To Contents.


wr  nswr


To Contents.  
To updates     



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